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Nigerian Environment and Effects on Entrepreneurship Development

Environmental Effects of Nigeria on the Entrepreneur.

The term environment biologically refers to the sum total or aggregate of the conditions, agencies and influences, which affect the development, and growth of living organisms. The environment could be physical or social. The physical environment includes the atmosphere, relief features, mater bodies, land, vegetation and wildlife, while the social environment includes, man their culture and social institutions.

Social environment.

Man is a social being who enjoys and depends on the company of others, people who live together as groups establish set patterns of behaviour regarding customs, moral values, religion and the way they organize their daily lives, like the kind of food they eat, their mode of dressing, language, occupation and culture. These are social patterns, which are transmitted from generation to generation.

The Home.

This is where the family lives together and the foundation of all learning. Here parents interact with their children and through this process children learn the family names, values and custom which society uphold. At home children becomes conscious of the occupation or profession of their parents. A business oriented family may likely have children who will toe the business of their parents, same is applicable to professionally inclined families, where the tendency of being influenced to practice the professions of their parents like medicine. law, teaching, engineering, accountancy etc is not far fetched. Artisan parents too may likely have children who will be exposed to learning different skills acquisition from them.

The School.

This is an institution where formal education is given to the pupils compared with the informal teaching within the family. Its responsibility is to continue the process of socialization begun at home. The school teaches virtues like obedience, respect, honesty, sincerity, faithfulness, truthfulness etc and discourage vices like stealing, cheating, telling lies, dishonesty, insincerity, disobedience etc. These are vices that stagnate entrepreneurship growth which the pupils at their formative years in life are taught to shun. In addition, the school hopes to promote the spirit of comradeship, diligence, honesty, hardworking, loyalty, punctuality, love and tolerance among its pupils. These are virtues which are the characteristics of a good entrepreneur. When they are taught to imbibe these virtues early in life, they grow up with them and in whatever venture they try their hands on, success will definitely smile on their faces. Education system is a tool at the disposal of any nation to mould the character of young citizens and develop their chosen skill through formal career structure so as to produce the manpower needed for the sustainable economic growth.

It is well known fact that effective training in skill acquisition has immensely contributed to the technological excellence and economic self reliance of industrialized nations. It is only with skilled manpower that materials can be harnessed, manipulated and transformed into products. With quality skill acquisition programmes, countries like America, Britain, Japan and Germany have rehabilitated drug addicts, school dropouts and several destitutes who eventually contributed meaningfully to the economy and the development of high volume of productivity in their countries. Hence, in Nigeria through the establishment of centres for entrepreneurial studies, Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu, Yaba Polytechnics Lagos, Federal Polytechnics Auchi in Edo State, Kwara State University, Malete, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna, and of recent Enugu State University of Science and Technology (the list is not exhaustive) giant strides have been made in these institutions in skills acquisition and vocational training. The graduates of these programmes are not only self employed but employers of labour and apart from reducing the social ills associated with unemployment, significant contributions to the nation’s economic profile have been recorded.

Religion.

At the core of every society lies what they consider as means of communion between them and whatever they regard as their creator or source of their being. This is where religion holds its meaning and becomes a vehicle for expressing ones belief system. As a multi-ethnic society, Nigeria has over 250 ethnic groups, each holding tenaciously to her faith deepened in religion and since this is the case whatever he does for a living is determined by his religion.

The nature of the business, where to operate the business, days to operate the business, whom to hire for the business etc, all these are influenced by his religion. It makes no sense therefore to run a beer parlour business in predominantly muslim community where their religion abhors alcoholic consumption.

The Market.

This commercial institution is a place where a child may interact freely with many people, usually with adults most of whom may be strangers. The child learns certain rules governing business transaction in the process of buying for his family needs. He learns how to select, how to bargain and how to calculate in a real life situation. This is all part of the training process by man’s social environment, which in the long run determines his business Interest.

Components of the Environment and their influences on Entrepreneurial drive in Nigeria.

Environment refers to man’s surrounding – the place he lives and the physical features, which can be many and varied.

Some people live in mountainous areas, others in plains, low lying areas or flat lands. Some near lakes, overs or oceans, more still live desert conditions. Some in fertile, others in barren lands; climate too varies tremendously over the globe.

All these factors exert over bearing influences on man’s life regarding his livelihood. In Nigeria for instance the Niger Deltans are riverined and for this reason they are predominantly fishermen and boat makers. The Hausa and fulani people live in grassland or savannah areas where they grow mostly cereal crops and rear cattle. In the eastern part of the country, the swampy areas of Ebonyi State particularly Abakaliki favours the growth of grains and tubers such as rice and yam. In the western axis, the Ijebu, Ondo and Ife people cultivate cocoa and kolanuts while the Binis grow rubber. These few examples represent how physical environment can determine the direction of one’s occupation.

There are some kinds of physical environment, which are far less habitable than others. Man however, is a progressive animal and has learnt to adapt himself to the conditions with which he is faced. Thus in marshy swampy areas, he has usually learnt to build boats and to fish. These have become his major occupations, as there may be little or no alternative if he is to survive. He may even live on water; certainly he lives near it and relies on it for moving around by boat, as probably road construction is too difficult or expensive.

In desert regions, man has remained a hunter or become a farmer or herdsman. In areas near oases or places where he has dug wells or managed to irrigate, he will try to grow his crops. The herdsman may settle in one place though often he is nomadic by tradition, certainly good use is made of any water supply in the area. Means of transportation are generally the camel, the horse or donkey. His home is usually constructed to keep out the heat and sand storm as much as possible.

In mountainous parts, man is usually sure-footed and knowledgeable about differing climatic conditions. His occupation can vary, frequently farming on lower slopes, hunting and sometimes mining where there are exploitable mineral resources. So environment and entrepreneurship can be likened to a horse that moves to any direction the rider pulls the rein.